Associate Professor Tsaltas Explains IVF

How does IVF work?

IVF is a process where eggs and sperm are fertilised outside the body and then transferred back into the uterus. The treatment typically involves the following steps:


1. The female partner takes Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) to produce up to 10–15 eggs. (Some patients will produce more or less than this.)
2. The eggs are collected while the female is sedated using an ultrasound probe and needle.
3. The sperm is inseminated around the egg or injected into the egg (ICSI) to create embryos.
4. The embryos are incubated in the laboratory and transferred back to the uterus on day 2, day 3 or day 5 (depending on the number and quality of the embryos). Medication is taken each day after this to help support the lining of the uterus.
5. A pregnancy test is performed two weeks later.

What are the risks of IVF?

The risks of IVF are very rare – however, I will discuss these with you in detail before you make any decisions.


If you suffer from endometriosis, I will help you understand how this may impact your IVF results and how the IVF treatment may affect your endometriosis.

What happens if my IVF implantations fail?

IVF can be a stressful and highly emotional process. I therefore believe that experience, care and understanding are of the upmost importance in managing the IVF process.


If you have had several unsuccessful IVF attempts (either at another IVF unit or with another specialist at my clinic), I am available to offer a second opinion. I will look at all your procedures and IVF treatment cycles to make an informed recommendation.

Can IVF be used to treat recurrent miscarriage?

Yes. If you’ve experienced recurrent miscarriage, I will investigate thoroughly and try to determine if it is occurring due to any underlying or reversible condition.


One possible treatment is IVF with Advanced Embryo Selection to check if the embryo being placed in the uterus is genetically normal. This treatment is also used to help patients who fail to conceive after a number of IVF attempts.

Why egg freezing?

Egg freezing is an advancing area of IVF treatment that has opened many opportunities not previously available.


In particular, egg freezing improves the fertility outcomes for women with endometriosis. It is also a realistic option for young and healthy women who are not ready or currently able to have children.